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Derivatives section will guide you through the sophisitcated world of trades on Financial markets in order to understand their obvious structures, practical usage and documentation that is needed to be concluded for avoiding the main risks. Read more…

Options are described in general as Contracts that confer the right, but not obligation to buy (Call Option) or to sell (Put Option) some financial assets at a given price (called Strike/Exercise Price) on or before an specific date. The costs for having this right is called a Premium, which is the price that Buyer […]

Cross-Currency swap (XCS) can be described as combination of FX-swap and IRS, as the counterparties conclude on swapping two currencies at beginning while this is accompanied also with connected interest flows. The only exception for this analogy is that there is switch between interests flows based on market rates (e.g. PRIBOR vs. EURIBOR), and not […]

Interest rate swap (IRS) represents core Derivative deal aimed at hedging against Interest rate risk. It is quite simple arrangement between two Counterparties, about swapping the basis for Interests calculation on any Loan, Corporate Debt, Debt paper or another instrument bearing floating interest rate. Basically there may be following motivations to conclude an IRS deal:a) […]

FX-Forward transaction is an equivalent of FX-Spot conversion, but delayed in time. It means that the FWD conversion rate for a future value date is set now and will be settled at maturity of the deal (in 1 Month, 2 Months, 3 Months etc.). This is quite simple transaction, because there is no 2nd Leg, […]

Local equivalent to ISDA Master Agreement for Derivatives trading has been developed by Czech Banking Association (CBA), so therefore this Agreement is called CBA-MAFT (“Master Agreement for Financial Transactions”). Quite naturally, CBA has inspired by ISDA when creating this documentation template, so that main principles have been nearly followed, however the structure is a bit […]

A simplest conversion of two currencies (e.g. EUR/CZK) based on current FX-rate, without any impact of future market prices. Having said that, it means that Spot deal is concluded and settled on same day value (resp. depending on practical settlement standards for each currency). Actually, FX-spot conversion is not a Derivative but it serves as […]

Derivative transaction, which represents quite simple “two-ways” FX- conversion between two currencies. Two ways means, that one day Citi performs BUY-SELL to Deutsche (1st Leg), while on the other day in future (2nd leg) performs vice-versa, so that it will be SELL-BUY operation for the same nominal amount of hedged short currency. Future value may […]

Next to the ISDA Master Agreement, there can be concluded also a Credit Support Annex (“CSA”), which is a legal document regulating eligible collateral for derivative transactions. It is an essential part of business relations in Derivatives and FX trading, but is not mandatory one. In other words, depending on the risk profile of both […]

Central to the ISDA documentation architecture is the ISDA Master Agreement. The ISDA Master Agreement is the standard contract used to govern all over-the-counter (OTC) Derivatives transactions entered into between the parties. Transactions across different asset classes and products are often documented under the same agreement. The purpose of the ISDA Master Agreement is to […]

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